GRAPHENE

Structures similar to that of Grafene have been known since the 1960s, but It was then difficult to isolate the individual floors in them.
This wonderful material was isolated for the first time in 2004, thanks to Andre Geim and Konstantin Novoselov of the University of Manchester, using the known method, such as: the "scotch-tape" method. The isolation of the Graphene, to the two Professors, earned him the Nobel Prize in Physics in 2010.
Graphene Gr is a single monoatomic layer of
hybridized carbon atoms arranged hexagonally with a C-C distance of 0.142 nm.
It represents the first true (2D) two-dimensional crystalline material. It has exceptional chemical and physical properties, which make it interesting in a large number of potential applications. Thanks to the presence of double covalent bonds between the carbon atoms it is very stable physically. It is extremely resistant and rigid (100 times more than steel, Young 1.0TPa's module), transparent, flexible, very light. It has a surface / mass ratio of 2600 m2/ g. Moreover, it presents, at room temperature, an electrical conductivity superior to any other substance. The thermal conductivity is also high, 5.3x103 Wm/K and the optical transmittance 97%.
An interesting application property is its ability to act as a condenser to store electrical energy. But the list of possible applications is endless: conductive materials for touch, display, sensors, membranes, battery electrodes, integrated circuits, photorelevers, photovoltaic cells, transistors, quantum dots, spintronic devices, DNA sequencers, fuel cells, desalination devices water, thermal coatings, shielding coatings, functional fluids, waterproof films, barriers, conductive inks, antennas, biosensors, optical devices, lubricants, biomedical devices, 3D printing materials, paints, composites and others.

Graphene because of its structure allows endless changes.
The precursors of Gr, GO and r-Go having hydroxyl groups (-OH) and carboxyl groups (-COOH) are strongly hydrophilic. Their exfoliation in water, or in other polar solvents is facilitated, given the increased distance between planes (and the relative diminished interaction) caused by the presence of oxygenated groups.
The GO due to a greater distance between floors is much less conductive. In most cases to effectively link Go, or r-Go to other materials, it is necessary to modify the geometric structure, electronic (with covalent bonds), or insert other stable changes (due to weak interactions); that is
the precursor must be functionalized.
Thanks to the availability on the surface of these hydroxyl, carboxylic and epoxy groups it is possible to modify the reactivity of the material by introducing a wide variety of new molecules according to the production needs.
Functionalization also facilitates the dispersion of nano-materials (of Graphene). Good dispersion ensures the stability of the bond between the Graphene and the material to which it is bonded.
The different methods of synthesis, the starting materials, the type of functionalization affect the chemical-physical characteristics of the Gr, or of the precursor and consequently of finished product, made with them.

Our different types of Graphene are selected to improve:
 
- the adhesion between materials;
- the electrical, thermal conductivity or the photoconductivity of the materials;
- the resistance to certain chemical agents;
- the mechanical performance (tensile, bending, load, shear, fatigue, compression, etc.);
- the impermeability to certain gases, liquids, or salts.
 
These improvements are achieved selectively, either individually, or combined.
 
Finally, we can offer also a type of Graphene capable, in particular conditions, to favor the growth of other structures in a spontaneous way (self-bonds).